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Education is essential for not only personal development, but societal development as well. UN studies have shown that for each year a woman spends in school her wages increase by 10 percent and reduce infant mortality rates by 5 percent. Additionally, well-educated women tend to educate their children well, creating a systemic increase in education. Moreover, specialized skills are necessary for employment. This section highlights on going efforts to promote female education in the developing world, teachers of law enforcement and other specialized skills, and scholarships available to women interested in law enforcement, diplomacy, or security studies.

Education of girls in developing and transitional countries, traditionally, lags behind that of boys. Two of the United Nation Millennium Development Goals address this issue: promoting gender equality and empowering women and universal education. In 2008, there were 96 girls for every 100 boys enrolled in primary school, 95 girls for ever boy in secondary school. This illustrates the progress that is being made in educating girls. However, women are primarily employed in informal industries such as agriculture. When women are employed in formal industries they are paid less than men. But, as education increases so do wages. Encouraging families to send their girls to schools is quite effective at keeping them in school. The UN runs the Female Secondary School Stipend program in Bangladesh, which provides money to cover their tuition and other costs, provided they are enrolled in school and do not get married until after age 18. Also, the World Food Program provided meals at schools for all students.

Education and Development Resources:

The United Nations has prioritized eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2015, as part of the Millennium Development Goals in an effort to end poverty. Here is an update on the progress that has been made toward that goal.

The UN has also prioritized universal primary education. Here is an update on the work that has been done to ensure that children everyone, boys and girls, have access to a full course of primary schooling by 2015.

The World Bank has also prioritized the education of women and girls across the world. Included in this interactive site are recent publications on the progress that has been made, results of specific programs, and the impact of these programs on the communities they are operating in.


Indian President Mukherjee, on March 5, 2013 noting the importance of girls and women getting an education, and the future effects of their untapped economic power. For the article, see here.

This article discusses a few reasons why school attendance rates are lower for girls than boys in India.

This article gives an update on Malala Yousufzai, the Pakistani teenager shot in the head by the Taliban for her outspoken stance on girls’ education in Pakistan.

A report on how the education of girls is changing the world.

Featured Women:

Education of women is also critical in specialized fields, such as law enforcement, diplomacy, and industry. There are academies, universities, and training programs for to gain these skills. Highlighted below are the women that make this happen.

Susan Ariel Aaronson

Susan Ariel Aaronson serves in the Minerva Research Fellow Faculty Chair (Minerva Chair) at the National War College within National Defense University, while maintaining an Associate Research Professorship at The George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs. Her expertise is international trade, human rights, corruption and development, an global corporate social responsibility.

Aaronson is currently directing a project examining how the U.S., EU, and Canada use trade agreements to govern the Internet and to advance Internet freedom/stability. Her research is funded by MacArthur Foundation. While at GWU, Aaronson has also received recent grants from the Swiss National Science Foundation and Ford Motor Company for her work on corruption and business and human rights.

Dr. Aaronson is a frequent speaker on public understanding of globalization issues. She was a regular commentator on "All Things Considered" in 1994-1995, "Marketplace" from 1995-1998, and "Morning Edition" from 1998-2001.

She has also appeared on CNN, the BBC, and PBS to discuss trade and globalization issues. She has also been a Guest Scholar in Economics at the Brookings Institution (1995-1999).

Dr. Aaronson serves on the Advisory Board for Business-Human Rights and is a Senior External Advisor to the Business and Society Team of Oxford Analytica. In recent years, she has been a pro-bono advisor to the UN Special Representative on Transnational Corporations and Human Rights, and the Congressional Human Rights Caucus.

She has also consulted for the ILO; the World Bank; Free the Slaves; the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative; the Stanley Foundation; several corporations; and the governments of Canada, Belgium, and the Netherlands, among others.

Mary Aiken

Mary Aiken is the Director of the RCSI CyberPsychology Research Centre, and a Research Fellow at the RCSI Institute of Leadership. Mary is lecturer in Criminology and Research Fellow at Middlesex University School of Law, and a Sensemaking Fellow at the IBM Network Science Research Center. Mary�s work has inspired an episode of the CBS primetime show CSI (Crime Scene Investigation) featuring a female lead character, who is CyberPsychologist and special agent at the FBI Cyber Crime Division.

Mary is currently leading an international research project in conjunction with INTERPOL, and works with a number of police forces worldwide, including the Los Angeles Police Department. Her research interests involve forensic CyberPsychology aspects of cyberstalking, human trafficking, online grooming and sex-offending, cyber reporting of crime, personal cyber security and safety. Mary is experienced in image content analysis, and virtual research methodology.

Mary is recognized as an expert at national and European level in policy debates at the intersection of technology and human behavior. In 2013 she was appointed by the Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (Republic of Ireland) to the Internet Content Governance Advisory Group. She is a spokesperson and expert contributor to the European Commission�s Safer Internet Day. She is an Observer to the INTERPOL Specialists Group on Crimes Against Children.

Barbara Bergman

The following text is taken from the November 2002 Ladies Home Journal

Justice for all: While others guard America's safety, Bergman, 50, who is also a law professor at the University of New Mexico, protects our civil liberties -- an increasingly tough challenge in these frightening times.

Driving passion: Given the threat of terrorism, I'm not saying we shouldn't protect ourselves," says Bergman, an expert on the fourth amendment, the law against unreasonable search and seizure, who's written nine books on legal issues. "But criminal defendants have the entire power of the government arrayed against them, so we've got to keep the system honest. we don't want to give up civil liberties now that we'll someday regret losing."

For more information see here.

Martha Crenshaw

Martha Crenshaw is a professor of political science at Stanford. Prior to this she was the Colin and Nancy Campbell Professor of Global Issues and Democratic Thought and professor of government at Wesleyan University from 1974 to 2007. She has written extensively on the issue of political terrorism.

Her recent work includes �Trajectories of terrorism: Attack patterns of foreign groups that have targeted the United States, 1970�2004,� in Criminology & Public Policy, �The Obama Administration and Counterterrorism,� in Obama in Office: the First Two Years, and �Will Threats Deter Nuclear Terrorism?� in Deterring Terrorism: Theory and Practice.

She is also the editor of The Consequences of Counterterrorism (Russell Sage Foundation, 2010). In 2011 Routledge published Explaining Terrorism, a collection of her previously published work.

She served on the Executive Board of Women in International Security and is a former President and Councilor of the International Society of Political Psychology (ISPP). She coordinated the working group on political explanations of terrorism for the 2005 Club de Madrid International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security.

In 2005-2006 she was a Guggenheim Fellow. Since 2005 she has been a lead investigator with the National Center for the Study of Terrorism and the Response to Terrorism (START) at the University of Maryland, funded by the Department of Homeland Security.

In 2009 she was awarded a grant from the National Science Foundation/Department of Defense Minerva Initiative for a project on "mapping terrorist organizations."

She serves on the editorial boards of the journals International Security, Political Psychology, Security Studies, Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, and Terrorism and Political Violence.

Lauren Fernandez

Lauren Fernandez is an instructor in the Master’s Degree Program at the Naval Postgraduate School’s Center for Homeland Defense and Security. Her research interests are Homeland Security, Emergency Management, Systems Engineering, Volunteer Management and Preparedness Assessment. She recently served as a branch chief in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. In that capacity she led analysis of assessment data, managed national information technology systems, and developed technical assistance programs. Previously, Dr. Fernandez worked in the private sector as a systems analyst and emergency management planner. She also has over ten years of experience as an emergency medical technician and an incident commander for the Appalachian Search and Rescue Conference. She holds a bachelor and master’s degree in systems engineering from the University of Virginia and received her doctorate in engineering management with a concentration in crisis, emergency, and risk management from The George Washington University. Her dissertation research concerned volunteer management system design and analysis for disaster response and recovery.

Julie Louise Gerberding, MD, MPH

Julie Louise Gerberding MD, MPH, is the newly-appointed Director for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). She is an Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) at Emory University and is on leave of absence as an Associate Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the University of California, San Francisco (USCF). She earned her B.A. degree magna cum laude in chemistry and biology and M.D. degree at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio and then completed her internship and residency in internal medicine at UCSF, where she also served as Chief Medical Resident before completing her fellowship in Clinical Pharmacology and Infectious Diseases at UCSF. She earned her MPH degree at the University of California, Berkeley in 1990.

As Acting Deputy Director of National Center for Infectious Diseases, Dr. Gerberding played a major role in leading CDC’s response to the anthrax bioterrorism events last fall. She joined CDC in 1998 as Director, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, where she developed CDC’s patient safety initiatives and other programs to prevent infections, antimicrobial resistance, and medical errors in healthcare settings. At UCSF, she was Director of the Prevention Epicenter, a multidisciplinary service, teaching, and research program that focused on preventing infections in patients and their healthcare providers.

Dr. Gerberding is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Alpha Omega Alpha (medical honor society), American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI), American College of Physicians, and is a Fellow in the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). She has served as Chair and Co-chair of the IDSA’s Committee on Professional Development and Diversity, was elected to serve as a member of the Nominations Committee, and is currently Co-chair of the Annual Program Committee.

Dr. Gerberding is also a member of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and has served as a member of the AIDS/Tuberculosis Committee, is currently serving her third year as Academic Counselor on the SHEA Board, and will be President of SHEA in 2003. In the past, she served as a member of NCID/CDC Board of Scientific Counselors, the CDC HIV Advisory Committee, and the Scientific Program Committee, National Conference on Human Retroviruses. She has also been a consultant to NIH, AMA, CDC, OSHA, National AIDS Commission, US Congress OTA, and WHO.

Her editorial activities have included appointments to the Editorial Board, Annals of Internal Medicine; Associate Editor, American Journal of Medicine, and service as a peer-reviewer for numerous internal medicine, infectious diseases, and epidemiology journals. Her scientific interests encompass infection prevention / healthcare quality promotion among patients and their healthcare providers.

She has authored/co-authored more than 120 peer-reviewed publications and textbook chapters and contributed to numerous guidelines and policies relevant to HIV prevention, post-exposure prophylaxis, management of infected healthcare personnel, and healthcare-associated infection prevention and control.

For more information see here.

LT Anne Gibbon

LT Anne Gibbon is currently the Deputy Director, Commanders Initiatives Group at Naval Special Warfare. In this role is identifies, builds, and maintains external networks while fusing them with ongoing thinking and knowledge, in order to enhance the strategic insight, complex problem-solving abilities, and knowledge base of the command. She has also served as the Assistant Director of the Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership at the U.S. Naval Academy, where she was tasked with creating innovative ethics and leadership education programs. She has also served as a Flag Aide at the U.S. Naval Academy and as a Navigator on the USS Reuben James. LT Gibbon graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 2003.

Jane Harman

Jane Harman resigned from Congress February 28, 2011 to join the Woodrow Wilson Center as its first female Director, President and CEO. Until that point she had represented the aerospace center of California during nine terms in Congress, she served on all the major security committees: six years on Armed Services, eight years on Intelligence and four on Homeland Security. She has made numerous Congressional fact-finding missions to hotspots around the world including North Korea, Syria, Libya, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen and Guantanamo Bay to assess threats against the U.S.

During her long public career, she has been recognized as a national expert at the nexus of security and public policy issues. Harman received the Defense Department Medal for Distinguished Service in 1998, the CIA Seal Medal in 2007, and the CIA Director�s Award and the National Intelligence Distinguished Public Service Medal in 2011. She is a member of the Defense Policy Board, State Department Foreign Policy Board, CIA External Advisory Board, the Director of National Intelligence�s Senior Advisory Group, and is a Trustee of the Aspen Institute and the University of Southern California. In 2012, she was named one of the 50 most influential democrats on foreign policy by Foreign Policy magazine.

Laura Manning Johnson

Laura Manning Johnson currently serves as the Deputy Chief of Deliberate Plans in the Office of Operations Coordination and Planning, for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Dr. Johnson helped stand up DHS in 2003 and served as the Deputy Director for Fusion within the National Operations Center from its inception in 2003 until 2008. Prior to joining DHS, she served as an intelligence analyst at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). During her tenure at the CIA, she was the executive assistant to the Director of the Non-Proliferation Center (NPC), and a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Advisor to the vice president�s WMD National Preparedness Review. She was the first Director of Central Intelligence Representative to the Office of Homeland Security beginning in October, 2001.

Dr. Johnson concluded her three-years as a member of the Intelligence and National Security Alliance (INSA) Board of Directors in fall 2010. She holds a PhD in political science from the University of California, Santa Barbara and master/bachelor degrees in political science from Oklahoma State University. Her areas of focus were public policy, public law, and public administration. Dr. Johnson has taught at American University, University of California Santa Barbara, Long Island University, and Oklahoma State University.

Martha J. Kanter

Martha J. Kanter was nominated by President Barack Obama on April 29, 2009, to be the under secretary of education and was confirmed by the Senate on June 19, 2009. Kanter reports to Secretary of Education Arne Duncan and oversees policies, programs and activities related to postsecondary education, adult and career-technical education, federal student aid, and six White House Initiatives-Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, Educational Excellence for Hispanics, Educational Excellence for African Americans, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Tribal Colleges and Universities, and Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships. To spur education, economic growth and social prosperity, Kanter is charged with planning and policy responsibilities to implement President Obama's goal for the U.S. to have "the best educated, most competitive workforce in the world by 2020" as measured by the proportion of college graduates over the next decade. Under Secretary Kanter and her team are keenly focused on improving college access, affordability, quality and completion to implement President Obama's American Graduation Initiative.

Dr. Kathleen Kiernan

Dr. Kathleen Kiernan is the founder and CEO of Kiernan Group Holdings, Inc. Dr. Kiernan is a 29-year veteran of Federal Law Enforcement. She previously served as the Assistant Director for the Office of Strategic Intelligence and Information for the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) where she was responsible for the design and implementation of an intelligence-led organizational strategy to mine and disseminate data related to explosives, firearms and illegal tobacco diversion, the traditional and non-traditional tools of terrorism.

Dr. Kiernan is the Chair Emeritus for the InfraGard Program, a public-private alliance with over 62,000 members representing all 18 critical infrastructures and key resources. She co-chaired the Homeland Security Intelligence Council (HSIC) for the Intelligence and National Security Alliance and is the former Chair of the DCI�s Law Enforcement Working Group, an initiative designed to bridge the communities of intelligence and law enforcement.

Dr. Kiernan is a senior member on the International Association of Chiefs of Police Terrorism subcommittee and serves on the Board of Regents of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.

Other highlights of Dr. Kiernan�s credentials include: Member of the Army Science Board where she led a panel exploring the transition of law enforcement training and technology to the war fighter; served as the ATF representative to the Counterterrorism Center (CTC) at CIA, the Council Vice President for ASIS, International, with oversight of the Critical Infrastructure Working Group (CIWG); chaired the Domestic Intelligence Council for the Intelligence and National Security Alliance (INSA); an Intelligence Fellow (2001); and is a graduate of the FBI�s National Executive Institute (Class 26), and is a member of the George Washington Policy Institute.

Dr. Kiernan led a nationwide Intelligence Community project involving the active interdiction of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) throughout the law enforcement and public safety communities, and led a team in the Quadrennial intelligence Community Review.

Dr. Kiernan serves as a Subject Matter Expert for the Rapid Reaction Technology Office for the Office of the Secretary of Defense and other elements of the defense community.

Dr. Kiernan was the recipient of the Women of Influence-Public Sector award in 2010, and the recipient of a number of other public service and academic awards.

Dr. Kiernan completed her Doctorate in Education at Northern Illinois University and her Master of Science in Strategic Intelligence at the Joint Military Intelligence College in Washington, DC. She also holds a Master of Arts in International Transactions from George Mason University Homeland Security Policy Institute and a faculty member at The Johns Hopkins University and the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security.

Kiernan, Kathleen. (2009). “Counterintelligence and Law Enforcement.” In Vaults, Mirrors, and   Masks: Rediscovering U.S. Counterintelligence. Edited by Jennifer E. Sims & Burton Gerber: Georgetown University Press: Washington. DC, 2009.

Ward, Richard, Kathleen Kiernan, & Daniel Mabrey. Homeland Security. Cincinnati, OH: Lexis-
Nexis, Anderson Publishing Company, 2006.

Vesna Markovic

Vesna Markovic is an Assistant Professor in the Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Science at the University of New Haven.

She specializes in Terrorism, including suicide bombings and terrorist financing, and Transnational and Organized Crime. She is also a program manager at the Institute for the Study of Violent Groups (ISVG).

Dr. Markovic teaches Criminal Justice and Homeland Security classes. She holds a BA and MA from the University of Illinois at Chicago ad PhD from Sam Huston State University.

Montgomery McFate

Dr. Montgomery McFate is a cultural anthropologist who works on defense and national security issues. Currently, she is the Minerva Chair at the Center for Naval Warfare Studies at the US Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. Formerly, she was the Senior Social Scientist for the US Army's Human Terrain System. She has held positions at a variety of think tanks, including RAND and the Institute for Defense Analyses.

She also worked at the US Navy's Office of Naval Research, where she was awarded a Distinguished Public Service Award by the Secretary of the Navy. She has served on the Army Science Board and the Defense Science Board, and was an instructor at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies.

Dr. McFate received a B.A. from University of California at Berkeley, a PhD in Anthropology from Yale University, and a J.D. from Harvard Law School. Her PhD dissertation concerned British counterinsurgency in Northern Ireland.

She has published in such journals as Journal of Conflict Studies, Military Review and Joint Forces Quarterly. Additionally, she was one of the primary contributors to Army Field Manual 3-24, Counterinsurgency.

She is a native of Marin County, California.

Dr. Denise Natali

Dr. Denise Natali holds the Minerva Chair at the Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University (NDU), where she focuses on the political economy of Iraqi federalism and regional energy sector politics.

Dr. Natali has lived and researched extensively in the Kurdish regions of Iraq, Turkey, Iran, and Syria, and authored numerous publications on Kurdish politics, economy, and identity, including The Kurdish Quasi-State: Development and Dependency in Post-Gulf War Iraq (Syracuse University Press, 2010) and The Kurds and the State: Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey and Iran (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2005), which received the 2006 Choice Award for Outstanding Academic Title (Trans to Turkish as Kurtler ve Devlet: Iraq, Turkiye ve Iran�da Ulusal Kimligin Gelismesi (Istanbul: Avesta Press, 2009).

Dr. Natali also specializes in post-conflict state-building, having worked for INGOs and the US Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance in Peshawar, Pakistan and post-Gulf War Iraqi Kurdistan respectively. She received a Ph.D in political science at the University of Pennsylvania and a Master of International Affairs (MIA) at Columbia University�s School of International and Public Affairs.

Anke Richter

Anke Richter is an associate professor at the Defense Resources Management Institute of the Naval Postgraduate School. Dr. Richter was previously a director of health outcomes at RTI-Health Solutions, RTI International. Her research interests include resource allocation for epidemic control, disease modeling and economic impact assessment, bio terrorism and public health preparedness. Dr. Richter has published in numerous journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology,PharmacoEconomics, Medical Decision Making, Clinical Therapeutics, Journal of Emergency Management and Interfaces. She received her PhD in operations research from Stanford University.

Dorothy M. Schulz

Dorothy Moses Schulz, Associate Professor, earned her B.A. in Journalism from New York University, her M.A. in Criminal Justice from John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and her Ph.D. in American Studies from New York University.

Professor Schulz brings a varied professional background to John Jay; she was a newspaper reporter and copy desk editor, and a free lance writer before embarking on a career in law enforcement. She retired from the Metro-North Commuter Railroad Police (now MTA Police) with the rank of captain, and then served as the director of security at the Fashion Institute of Technology (SUNY) before starting her academic career at John Jay. She is a member of numerous academic and police organizations and has lectured and published widely, primarily in areas pertaining to women police and transit and railroad police.

She is the author of From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Municipal Policing (Praeger, 1995), a history of women in policing that is used widely in colleges and police academies.

Dr. Schulz was the Principal Investigator for the largest federal grant awarded in the area of transit policing, overseeing a six-site study of patrol deployment practices for the Transit Cooperative Research Program, published as Guidelines for the Effective Use of Uniformed Transit Police and Security Personnel. In 2002, she served as project manager for Federal Transit Administration=s mandated triennial audit of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Police Department.

She is currently writing a book on women police chiefs and sheriffs and is also completing primary-source research for a book on the history of railroad police in North America.

For more information see here.

Sarah Sewall

Sarah Sewall has worked at the nexus of national security and humanitarianism throughout her career in government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. She currently teaches at the Harvard Kennedy School and is program director for two of the Center's programs: Mass Atrocity Response Operations (MARO) and National Security & Human Rights.

Her research focuses on U.S. national security strategy, civil-military relations, and the ethics of fighting insurgencies and terrorism. As a participant in the Department of Defense MINERVA research initiative, she is completing, with John P. White, a year-long assessment of senior civil-military decision-making.

In 2007, she founded the MARO Project to create a military concept of operations for intervening to halt mass atrocity. Her prior work with the U.S. military included writing the introduction to the University of Chicago edition of the Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual (2007).

Sewall was the first U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Assistance during the Clinton Administration. She previously had served for six years as Senior Foreign Policy Advisor to Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell.

She serves on the Center for Naval Analysis Defense Advisory Committee, the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Offensive Information Operations and several non-profit boards. Educated at Harvard and Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar.

Dr. Jennifer Sims

Dr. Jennifer Sims is the Senior Fellow on National Intelligence at The Chicago Council on Global Affairs as well as professor and the director of intelligence studies at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. Dr. Sims has also served as the deputy assistant secretary of state for intelligence coordination and an intelligence advisor to the undersecretary for management and coordinator for intelligence resources and planning at the U.S. Department of State. She received the National Distinguished Service Medal, the intelligence community�s highest civilian honor, in 1998. Her research focuses on how intelligence can support counterterrorism, counter proliferation, and homeland security efforts. She has also written extensively on these subjects. .

Anne Speckhard

Anne Speckhard, Ph.D. is an Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Georgetown University Medical School.  Dr. Speckhard has been working in the field of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) since the 1980’s and has extensive experience working in Europe, the Middle East and the former Soviet Union. She was the chair of the NATO Human Factors & Medicine Research and Technology Experts Group (HFM-140/RTG) on the Psychosocial, Cultural and Organizational Aspects of Terrorism, served as the co-chair of the NATO-Russia Human Factors & Medicine Research Task Group on Social Sciences Support to Military Personnel Engaged in Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism Operations and served on the NATO Human Factors & Medicine Research Task Group Moral Dilemmas and Military Mental Health Outcomes.

She is a member of the United Nations Roster of Experts for the Terrorism Prevention Branch Office on Drugs and Crime and was previously awarded a Public Health Service Fellowship in the United States Department of Health & Human Services where she served as a Research Fellow.

She has provided expert consultation to numerous European governments as well as the U.S. Department of Defense regarding programs for prevention and rehabilitation of individuals committed to political violence and militant jihad.  In 2006-2007 she worked with the U.S. Department of Defense to design and pilot test the Detainee Rehabilitation Program in Iraq. 

In 2002, she interviewed hostages taken in the Moscow Dubrovka Theater about their psychological responses and observations of the suicidal terrorists and did the same in 2005 with surviving hostages from the Beslan school take-over. Since 2002, she has collected more than four hundred research interviews of family members, friends, close associates and hostages of terrorists and militant jihadi extremists in Palestine, Israel, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Russia, Chechnya, Belarus, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Belgium and France.

Dr. Speckhard is the director of the Holocaust Survivors Oral Histories Project � Belarus, a project constructing the history of the Minsk Ghetto and Holocaust in Belarus through oral histories and archival research.

She also researched traumatic stress issues in survivors of the Chernobyl disaster and has written about stress responses to toxic disasters. Dr. Speckhard worked with American expatriates after 9-11 (at SHAPE, NATO, the U.S. Embassy to Belgium and Mission to the EU) and conducted research on acute stress responses to terrorism in this population. She also studies psychological resilience to terrorism in various populations including American civilians, military and diplomats serving in Iraq under high threat security conditions.

Dr. Speckhard co-directed the NATO Advanced Research Workshops - Ideologies of Terrorism: Understanding and Predicting the Social, Psychological and Political Underpinnings of Terrorism and Understanding and Addressing the Root Causes of Radicalization among Groups with an Immigrant Heritage in Europe and served on the NATO/Russia Counter-Terrorism Advisory Group.

Dr. Speckhard consults to governments and lectures to security experts worldwide. She is the author of the books: Talking to Terrorists and Fetal Abduction.

For more information see here.

Laurie Van Leuven

Laurie Van Leuven is a fellow at FEMA, Protection and National Preparedness. She works with FEMA on projects related to her published research on social media technologies to improve community engagement and resiliency during emergencies. She is also working with the DHS National Protection and Programs Directorate on its Enterprise Risk Management Initiative for public/private critical infrastructure owners/operators. Her home agency is Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) where she is a strategic advisor and manager, responsible for physically securing utility assets and ensuring critical infrastructure protection for the regional drinking water system for 1.4 million people in Seattle and neighboring communities as well as protecting the wastewater, drainage and flood control, and solid waste/debris management systems.

Ms. Van Leuven has extensive experience in essential utility service delivery, COOP programs, enterprise risk management, vulnerability assessments, strategic and emergency planning, and incident management within an EOC environment, sector interdependencies, and local and state collaboration.

Dr. Lauren Wollman

Dr. Lauren Wollman is a senior faculty member at the Center for Homeland Defense and Security at the Naval Postgraduate School. She is the lead instructor for the Policy Analysis and Research Methods coursework and oversees research, including student thesis work, at the center. She has worked on the Homeland Security Digital Library taxonomy, developing the curriculum for the national certificate program for Homeland Security Studies, and leading the faculty Development Initiative. Her research intersts and expertise includes epistemology, historical narrative, early modern Europe, and cognitive linguistics.

Mary D Zalesny

Mary D Zalesny is a behavioral and social scientist with the National Security Directorate at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. She has over 25 years of research, teaching and consulting experience in organizational and group behavior.

Her research and professional experience include both basic and applied research in leadership and group behavior and processes, human judgment and information processing, networks (terrorist and social) and networked organizations, insider threat, and cyber and nuclear security. Analytic tools applied in the research and project work include social network analysis, statistical analysis (univariate and multivariate), network analysis, red team assessments, survey and test evaluation development, administration and analysis, and scenario development, among others.

Her recent research has included: ongoing technical support to the Department of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, on behavioral and organizational issues related to terrorism and insurgencies; serving as a member of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-National Nuclear Security Administration team to identify insider threat issues at facilities storing and/or using radioactive materials for the Global Threat Reduction Initiative; serving as behavioral technical lead on a study of the insider threat for the Counterintelligence Field Activity; and advising the DOE�s Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) project (now Radiological Threat Reduction) on the social and psychological impacts related to RDD events.

Dr. Zalesny received a B.S. in psychology and an M.A. and Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana.